|Feelings at week 15||How the body is changing|
|Fetal development||Possible problems|
|Ultrasound on week 15||Research and analysis|
Feelings in the 15th week of pregnancy
Week 15 of pregnancy marks the initial stage of the second trimester of bearing a child. This period is traditionally considered by gynecologists to be the most calm and problem-free in the life of the expecting mother.
Indeed, when compared with the first trimester, the sensations and state of health of a pregnant woman are significantly improved.
At one point, all the unpleasant symptoms of the first weeks after conception disappear: early toxicosis, which in most cases is accompanied by nausea or vomiting, irritability and nervousness, and frequent urination. This is quite a difficult time in the life of a pregnant woman, but, fortunately, it most often ends closer to week 12. And the 15th week of pregnancy is the time when the woman’s body has recovered from hormonal shock, and now minor troubles are not perceived too acutely.
What does the pregnant woman feel at this time? Of course, the joy of future motherhood may be occasionally overshadowed by some symptoms. For example, weakness, drowsiness and dizziness caused by pressure drops. Nasal congestion that occurs against the background of ongoing hormonal changes, as well as bleeding gums or nasal mucosa are also not so pleasant. The increasing uterus rises higher, solving the problem with frequent urge to urinate, but this fact can lead to difficulties breathing. The uterus puts pressure on the diaphragm, and the woman may not have enough air.
Doctors recommend that the pregnant woman during this period try to pay more attention to her well-being. If she’s getting worse, she must seek medical attention. If there are no alarming symptoms, then the woman can lead a moderately active lifestyle: travel and do fitness.
How does the mother’s body change on the outside?
In many women, the belly at the 15th week of pregnancy is already noticeable. The fetus grows, and the bottom of the uterus drops below the navel by 7 cm. However, it is worth saying that the special condition of the woman is not yet obvious to those around her. Externally, her body looks the same as before, but the expectant mother herself can already feel tightness in the lower abdomen.
Now all the internal work of the body is aimed to fulfill one goal – to carry and then feed the baby. Therefore, you may notice changes that continue to occur with the breast. It swells, dark areas of the areola and nipples darken, some women may have colostrum at this time. The mammary glands are preparing for the process of breastfeeding, which is to be after the childbirth.
Under the action of hormones, pigmentation of the skin of the pregnant woman increases. Characteristic spots may appear on the face or anywhere on the body. In this regard, the line of pigment, which stretches down from the navel, is especially prominent. This sign is observed in all pregnant women at this time.
Spots that appear on the open areas of the body and face, of course, give the expecting mother a lot of anxiety, because everyone wants to look good in this memorable period. But do not forget that they are temporary, which means they will not be with you forever. In the period of their appearance, you can use proven and safe cosmetics to hide the pigmentation.
Fetal development in the 15th week of pregnancy
When the 15th obstetric week of pregnancy comes, the baby in the mother’s belly reaches about 10 cm in height, the weight also increased – on average 50 grams. The heart beats actively and at a steady pace, pumping more than 23 liters of blood daily.
What are the main points in the development of the baby? For starters, it’s worth noting that the fetus at the 15th week of pregnancy has come a long way and has overcome many factors that affect its development. As we remember, the egg cell isolated during the ovulation period and fertilized by the sperm began actively dividing its cells, and at the blastocyst stage, the embryo implanted into the uterine wall. Having completed this cycle, the embryo began its intrauterine development.
At each stage, there is a laying and improvement of certain organs and functions of the body. The 15th obstetric week of pregnancy is no exception.
- At this time there is an active formation of the brain. There are no gyri yet, but their rudiments appear in the form of small grooves. The nerve cells of the brain continue to divide, and gradually begin to coordinate the actions of the fetus.
- The gallbladder secretes bile into the intestine. Sweat glands and bladder are functioning. So the baby can urinate into the amniotic fluid several times a day. Amniotic fluid is constantly circulating and renewed, so the natural discharge of the fetus does not affect its health.
- The baby at the 15th week of pregnancy can already do a lot of things. Its eyes are still closed, but it can feel the light. It hears well everything that happens in the intrauterine space and even outside it. The baby actively masters sucking movements, swallows amniotic fluid.
- At this time the musculoskeletal system is forming. Therefore, the fetus actively consumes calcium from the mother’s body. In order to prevent the deterioration of health, doctors prescribe additional vitamin complexes. They will help to provide the building material for the formation of the baby’s skeleton. The fetus itself is actively moving, although at this stage its movements are still erratic and not conscious. Some mothers even feel movements of the baby.
At week 15, the boys’ bodies begin to produce testosterone. In both boys and girls, the genitals are developing.
The state of health of a pregnant woman who bears two babies is not much different from the sensations experienced by the future mother of one child. Nevertheless, experts recommend that women pregnant with twins be even more cautious and prudent. And this is understandable, because each fetus requires energy and resources for development, which they take from their mother’s body. The woman should, together with the supervising physician, provide them and herself with everything she needs without harming her health.
Discharge at the 15th obstetric week
The future mother needs to be alert and consult a gynecologist if the discharge at the 15th week of pregnancy suddenly changes dramatically. Among the signs that should alert the woman are changes in color, in composition, in the smell.
If you detect yellow or green discharge, an unpleasant, previously unobservable odor has appeared, and there is a cheesy consistency, then you have to seek medical assistance urgently.
The reason may be either a threat of miscarriage, or an inflammatory process, or an infection. The doctor must clarify the diagnosis and prescribe treatment. In most cases, if the woman went to the hospital in a timely manner, the pregnancy is not interrupted.
At week 15, the expectant mother may notice pain in different parts of her body:
- Moderate and rare soreness in the uterus. The muscles in this area are stretched following the increase in the size of the fetus.
- Pain in the coccyx area caused by the same reason – the growth of the child. The uterus, increasing in size, puts pressure on the nerve endings in the pelvic region.
- Unpleasant soreness in the legs appears in the second trimester in some pregnant women. Cramps are caused by calcium deficiency.
- There may be pain during urination, extending to the lumbar. This may be a sign of kidney disease; you have to consult a doctor.
- Headache is a frequent companion of pregnant women. It is not recommended to take medications in order not to harm the child. The woman should have proper rest and spend more time outdoors.
Strong and frequent pain sensations are not the norm for the course of pregnancy. The woman experiencing discomfort in the lower abdomen, cramps like during menstruation, must be cautious. The best decision is to contact the woman’s health clinic if you have any doubts about the state of the baby. The gynecologist will find out the reason for the ailment and help to treat it.
At the 15th week of pregnancy, miscarriage may occur due to serious pathologies in the development of the fetus. Among the most common causes are past abortions, abnormal placenta previa, blood rhesus conflict, infectious diseases, hormonal or genetic failure. Signs of spontaneous abortion include bleeding and severe pain in the uterus.
It is important to provide timely medical aid to a pregnant woman, since such cases may threaten her life.
An expectant mother who has found a bloody discharge should remain calm. Vaginal bleeding is a reason to visit a doctor without delay, but it doesn’t necessarily say that a miscarriage has happened.
You should know the most common causes of such phenomena:
- Placental abruption. The premature separation of a uterine cake from the uterine wall can be caused, for example, by pathologies in the mother’s vascular system, bad habits (especially alcohol use), and autoimmune conditions. In any case, the abruption threatens the life of the fetus, because it ceases to receive oxygen and nutrients.
- Missed miscarriage. This pathology is most often observed in mothers over the age of 35, as well as in cases where there was a sad experience of abortions or ectopic pregnancies.
- The threat of miscarriage due to stress or excessive physical activity. Some women, who lead a sports lifestyle, do not consider it necessary to reduce the load during pregnancy. This is the wrong approach, which can lead to disastrous consequences. Any doctor will confirm that for a safe course of pregnancy it is necessary to lower the intensity of training and not lift weights.
There are very frequent cases when at the 15th week a woman contacts the woman’s health clinic with complaints of discharge with blood clots, and urgent treatment helps to preserve the fetus.
Fetal ultrasound at the 15th week of pregnancy
Ultrasound is one of the most informative methods for determining the parameters of fetal development. It is often appointed by the gynecologist if there are any doubts about the safe course of pregnancy. Using an ultrasound machine, a doctor can tell the mother and father how the baby feels and what its environment is. A photo at the 15th week of pregnancy will show the size and body weight of the baby, the amount of amniotic fluid, the condition of the placenta. If the presentation of the fetus allows seeing the genitals, some experts can determine the sex of the baby.
Required studies and analyzes
All pregnant women who are registered in woman’s health clinics are referred to the so-called triple test. These studies help determine the risk of a child having congenital malformations and severe genetic abnormalities.
The triple test includes:
- analysis for the AFP protein;
- analysis for the hCG hormone;
- analysis for the hormone estriol.
If the triple test result indicates a defect, doctors prescribe more accurate tests. As a rule, these are invasive prenatal screening methods, during which doctors receive cells from the embryo and placenta. These include amniocentesis (sampling of amniotic fluid), chorionic villus biopsy, fetal tissue biopsy, cordocentesis (umbilical cord blood collection), fetoscopy (fetal examination with a probe). Such studies are prescribed only as a last resort, because there is a high probability of injury. Operations are carried out in a hospital and under the supervision of an ultrasound doctor.
Experts state that the probability of developing anomalies and the presence of genetic pathologies depends on the age of the mother. The older a pregnant woman, the higher the risk.
Doctors can impose restrictions in the intimate life of a married couple expecting a child. And in some cases, even to ban it for the time of pregnancy. It all depends individually on each case, on the health of the future mother.
Usually gynecologists recommend to be careful in the first trimester. During the second trimester, the risk of abortion is much lower, therefore, the intimacy between the spouses is possible. Sexual relations should be stopped if there is a real threat of termination of pregnancy. In this case, doctors advise to refrain from sexual acts until the safer period.
Recommendations for the expectant mothers
Please accept these recommendations:
- Use cosmetics to prevent stretch marks on the skin. You should remember that the stretch marks don’t disappear after delivery, so at the beginning of the second trimester, when the fetus shows rapid growth and there is a big weight gain, you should take care of your body.
- Take vitamins. The normal development of the fetus requires nutrients and trace elements, which the baby takes from the mother. In order to prevent the weakening of immunity and deterioration of health, replenish your strength with the help of vitamin complexes.
- Switch to loose-fitting clothing so as not to exert pressure on the fetus. Thus, the growing baby and you yourself will feel comfortable.
- Walk and make trips, but in moderation.
See your dentist. Gum bleeding and dental problems are normal for this period. A dentist will help you survive it with the least loss.
Diet for the expectant mother
The diet of the future mothers should be varied and frequent. It is best to eat food fractionally and in small portions. Naturally, the pregnant woman should eat properly and give preference to cereals, eggs, vegetables and fruits, dairy products and lean meat. Don’t forget about fresh fish, baked or steamed.
If at this stage there is an excessively rapid increase in body weight, then doctors recommend to give up the sweets and baked goods. Excess weight has not the best effect on the pregnant woman’s state, so this issue should be taken seriously. For those women who, on the contrary, cannot gain kilograms in any way, it’s better to switch to more high-calorie products, including vegetable fats and meat.